Blood sugar, the most basic energy source our body uses, is maintained at a constant level by substances such as insulin and glucagon produced by the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus refers to a type of metabolic disease that occurs when the secretion of insulin, which controls blood sugar, is insufficient due to genetic factors or environmental factors, or the normal function is not achieved.
Gestational diabetes is a disorder of glucose metabolism that is recognized for the first time during pregnancy due to physiological changes caused by pregnancy. It is mainly characterized by causing various metabolic disorders in the middle and late stages of pregnancy, and if not properly treated, it will adversely affect the health of the mother and fetus, so it is important to be careful and manage it. Now, let’s learn more about the main causes, symptoms, and treatment of gestational diabetes in more detail.
Gestational Diabetes Causes and Symptoms
Although the exact cause of gestational diabetes is not known, it is known that the placental hormone secreted during pregnancy interferes with the normal action of insulin. During pregnancy, various hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are secreted from the placenta, which connects the mother and the fetus, and the function of insulin, which lowers blood sugar, is lowered, resulting in an increase in blood glucose concentration.
In a normal case, the pancreas should secrete insulin in an amount two to three times larger than usual in order to lower the elevated glucose concentration. This can lead to diabetes, which can lead to diabetes. The abnormal secretion of insulin, which affects the occurrence of gestational diabetes, is caused by various causes. In particular, since aging acts as a factor that reduces endocrine function, it is known that the risk of developing gestational diabetes is higher when the mother is older. There is a bar.
When gestational diabetes occurs, symptoms such as fatigue and weakness appear. You will also be able to drink a lot of water, go to the beach more often, and gain weight. Since these symptoms do not appear in a characteristic form in most cases, the occurrence of gestational diabetes is confirmed through prenatal testing. If such gestational diabetes is not treated and managed properly, the high blood sugar level of the pregnant woman continues, resulting in excessive glucose passing through the placenta to the fetus. And this action excessively promotes the growth of the fetus, causing a giant baby and increasing the possibility of difficult delivery.
In addition, when the uncontrolled blood sugar situation during pregnancy worsens, complications such as polyhydramnios and preeclampsia are induced in the mother, and complications such as hypocalcemia, hypererythrocytosis, hyperbilirubinemia, and dyspnea in newborns. The risk will increase. Therefore, it is important to be careful and manage the symptoms of gestational diabetes not to worsen. Gestational diabetes usually disappears after delivery, but it is important to maintain a lifestyle to prevent diabetes because it can develop into diabetes without disappearing even after delivery.
Gestational diabetes treatment and prevention
1. Diagnosis and treatment
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed with an oral glucose tolerance test. Pregnant women who are most likely to have gestational diabetes are given an oral glucose tolerance test when they first go to receive prenatal care, and pregnant women who do not have a 50g oral glucose tolerance test are performed as a preliminary test around 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. If the 50g oral glucose tolerance test is positive, a secondary confirmation test such as a 100g oral glucose tolerance test is performed, and a more accurate diagnosis procedure is carried out. In addition, if gestational diabetes is confirmed based on the diagnosis result, appropriate diet and exercise therapy are implemented to keep blood sugar levels normal. If blood sugar cannot be controlled despite diet and exercise, treatment with insulin is administered under the prescription of a specialist.
2. Steady exercise
Regular exercise is an essential habit for the prevention and management of gestational diabetes as it helps the mother to maintain a normal weight and control blood sugar. Considering your physical condition, it is recommended to do light aerobic exercise such as walking or jogging for about 45 minutes a day, 3 days a week. In addition, various exercises such as swimming, dumbbell exercise, yoga, etc., which can minimize the weight burden on the joints due to buoyancy, are recommended exercises. However, it is recommended that you refrain from exercising with heavy weights and excessive movements as it is not good.
3. Healthy eating with balanced nutrients
Maintaining a well-balanced diet with well-balanced nutrients is also an important habit for maintaining normal blood pressure and maintaining an appropriate weight. Diet control is an effective method to carry out after consulting with a professional nutritionist, and divide regular meals 3 times a day and snacks 2-3 times a day with 50% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 20% protein in small portions. It is recommended to consume adequate calories.
In addition, it is recommended to consume fruits and dairy products, including grains with a high carbohydrate content, according to the prescribed guidelines.