The peritoneum, also called the abdominal membrane, is a thin membrane that surrounds the abdominal cavity and serves to connect and support the internal organs in the abdomen. In addition, the peritoneal fluid secreted from the peritoneum contains antibodies and white blood cells, which are immune cells, so it not only resists inflammation but also reduces friction for a long period of time. When such a problem occurs in the peritoneum, various symptoms such as ascites including hernia and abscesses in the abdominal cavity occur. Peritonitis also refers to one of the major diseases related to the peritoneum, and refers to inflammation occurring within the peritoneum. Depending on the course, it is diagnosed and classified into acute peritonitis and chronic peritonitis.
Peritonitis is classified into infectious and non-infectious according to the cause. In the case of infectious peritonitis, which means that bacteria penetrate into the sterile peritoneal cavity and cause inflammation in the peritoneum, intestinal perforation is the main cause. It is mainly caused by perforation of acute appendicitis, perforation of cholecystitis, including perforation of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and is known to be caused by endometritis and pneumococcal peritonitis. In the case of non-infectious peritonitis, it is known that aseptic blood, body fluids, and bile enter the abdominal cavity and cause bacterial infection, infection due to stimulation during surgery, or trauma after aseptic surgery. Now, let’s take a look at the main symptoms of peritonitis, as well as various information on diagnosis and treatment one by one.
The main symptoms of peritonitis
The most common symptoms when peritonitis occurs include acute abdominal pain, abdominal tenderness that worsens when you press the painful area, and rebound pain that occurs when you press and release the painful area. I can. This kind of pain has a characteristic that it gets worse when you bend your back or cough.
In addition, if peritonitis is caused by perforation, it may be accompanied by symptoms such as instantaneous severe abdominal pain, increase in breathing and heart rate, increase in body temperature and decrease in blood pressure, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal distension. And in severe cases, it can even lead to shock symptoms.
If peritonitis is caused by inflammation of the gallbladder, it can cause serious damage to the gallbladder due to high blood flow and suppuration. In case of peritonitis due to intestinal obstruction, the mortality rate is known to be high enough to reach about 30%. And if the worsening of peritonitis becomes chronic, abdominal pain is somewhat reduced, but symptoms such as bloating and rigidity, nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, shortness of breath, and rapid pulse may occur more frequently.
This chronicity also increases the risk of shock symptoms and related complications caused by bacterial toxins. Therefore, when peritonitis occurs in an acute form, it is very important to receive prompt first aid and treatment, and it is important to prevent the progression to chronicity.
Diagnosis and treatment of peritonitis
1. Diagnosis and examination
To accurately identify the cause of peritonitis, a blood test to check for electrolyte abnormalities including increased white blood cells and a blood culture test to accurately identify the causative bacteria that cause inflammation are performed. In addition, through various tests such as abdominal X-rays, ultrasound, and CT, more accurate causes of peritonitis will be confirmed. In addition, the number of white blood cells, acidity, and protein are accurately checked by methods such as intraperitoneal washing to distinguish between bacterial and non-bacterial. However, if the clinical symptoms of peritonitis are evident, surgical treatment can be proceeded without additional examination.
2. Implementation of non-surgical and surgical treatment
Peritonitis is largely treated through non-surgical and surgical treatment, and the appropriate treatment method is implemented according to the cause of its occurrence. Treatment methods such as fasting, administration of antibiotics, fluid supply, and endoscopic stent insertion are among these non-surgical treatments.
However, if peritonitis causes an imbalance in electrolytes and body fluids and at the same time symptoms such as sepsis, acute renal failure, intra-abdominal abscess, and shock become more severe or cause related complications, first aid and surgical treatment are performed.