Rhinitis refers to an inflammatory disease that causes various abnormal symptoms when the mucous membrane of the nose becomes congested and swollen. Allergic rhinitis is a type of rhinitis, and refers to a disease that causes a hypersensitivity reaction by producing a large amount of mucus inside the nose after exposure to the mucous membrane of the nose to a substance causing an allergy. It is broadly classified into seasonal allergic rhinitis, which occurs frequently in a specific season, and perennial allergic rhinitis, which occurs year-round regardless of the season. The main cause of allergic rhinitis is known to be caused by congenital and environmental factors. If both parents have an allergic disease, the incidence increases by about 75%, and it is known that when one parent has an allergic disease, the child’s chance of developing an allergic disease increases by about 50%. Factors play a large role in the occurrence. In addition, various environmental factors such as house dust mites, mold, pollen, pet hair and dander, cockroaches, and insect debris are also causative antigens that cause allergic rhinitis. And allergic rhinitis is known to be more severe when the environmental factors are superimposed on the congenital factors. In addition, air pollution, rapid temperature changes, changes in indoor temperature, and stimulation caused by excessive stress have also been known to affect the occurrence. In particular, it is reported that the change in temperature is a representative factor that exacerbates allergic rhinitis, so the incidence rate is reported to increase even more during the changing seasons with a large daily temperature difference. Now, let’s check the main symptoms that appear when allergic rhinitis occurs, as well as various information related to treatment and prevention.
The main symptoms of allergic rhinitis
When allergic rhinitis occurs, you will continuously sneeze and have a clear runny nose like water. There are also various symptoms such as stuffy nose and itchy eyes and nose. The symptoms of sneezing and runny nose are usually severe in the morning or morning, and then decrease in the afternoon, and the nasal congestion symptoms continue. And if the symptoms get worse, it is difficult to breathe through the nose, so breathing through the mouth is made, and the inflow of air into the nose decreases, causing symptoms such as stuffiness, headache, and decreased sense of smell.
Since the symptoms of allergic rhinitis are similar to those of a cold, treatment is often delayed or neglected. If symptoms persist, various related symptoms such as paroxysmal sneezing, non-stop runny nose, and persistent nasal congestion can cause great discomfort in life and significantly reduce quality of life. And if allergic rhinitis persists for a long time, it will continue in a form similar to chronic rhinitis, and may lead to various complications such as chronic cough and otitis media, sinusitis, loss of smell, and nasal polyps. In addition, the continuous worsening of symptoms has a significant adverse effect on the psychological part, which further increases irritability, depression, and stress, which can lead to the occurrence of mental disorders. Moreover, allergic rhinitis in children can be a factor that interferes with the child’s normal growth and brain development, and if it continues, it can lead to problems such as dental malocclusion and abnormal bone growth. Therefore, if symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, or stuffy nose persist for more than 1 to 2 months, it is important to receive various tests and treatment through a visit. Treatment and prevention of allergic rhinitis
1. Diagnosis and examination
To diagnose allergic rhinitis, a family history, allergy history, residential environment, and exposure to allergens are first performed. In addition, tests for specific allergens are performed through skin reaction tests and blood allergy tests, and nasal endoscopy and simple sinus X-ray tests are performed to check the condition of the nasal mucosa more accurately. Depending on the results of these various tests, various treatment methods such as environmental therapy, drug therapy, and immunotherapy are carried out. Environmental therapy, which avoids exposure to the causative allergen, is the most basic and important treatment in the treatment of allergic diseases. will do. Drug treatment is a treatment using antihistamines, leukotriene modulators, nasal mucosal constrictors, steroids, etc. Immunotherapy is a treatment that starts with a minimal amount of the causative allergen and then gradually increases the concentration and injects it subcutaneously. And if symptoms do not improve despite these various treatments, surgical treatment may be considered.
2. Keep the room clean
House dust mite is a representative causative antigen that causes allergic rhinitis. Since house dust mites easily inhabit beds, blankets, pillows, and blankets, it is effective to remove them by washing the bedding with water at 60℃ or higher every week and drying them in strong sunlight for 3 hours or more. In addition, it is recommended to use a zipper for items that emit a lot of dust or easily fit, and to boil the cover frequently. In addition, cockroaches, mold, and hair and dandruff that fall off the skin of companion animals are allergens, so it is recommended to keep the room clean at all times to remove causative antigens.
3. Beware of temperature changes
The sharp increase in the incidence of allergic rhinitis during the changing seasons with a large daily temperature difference is due to the rapid temperature change. Therefore, it is important to take care of the body according to the changing temperature during the changing seasons, and it is recommended to properly control the use of air conditioners and heaters such as air conditioners and heaters so that the indoor and outdoor temperatures do not differ much in summer or winter. In addition, since house dust mites multiply easily in a high-temperature and high-humidity environment, it is recommended that the indoor temperature be maintained at 18~21℃ and the indoor humidity at 40~50%. In addition, it is recommended to wear a mask and scarf when going out in winter because sudden exposure to cold air can cause worsening of symptoms.
In addition, pollen is also a major cause of allergic rhinitis symptoms, so it is recommended to minimize going out during the pollen season and pay attention to indoor ventilation. And when going out, it is recommended to wear a mask and at the same time remove dust before entering the room after going out and wash your hands thoroughly. In addition, mental stress and physical fatigue can cause a decrease in immunity, which can cause allergic rhinitis and worsening of symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet and sufficient rest. Drinking alcohol is also an important preventive habit.