The bile duct, also called the bile duct, is a tube made by the liver that carries bile to the duodenum, which helps digest fat. It is divided into the intrahepatic bile duct, which passes through the liver, and the extrahepatic bile duct, which leaves the liver and extends to the duodenum. Bile duct cancer refers to a malignant tumor that occurs in the biliary tract, also called cholangiocarcinoma. Because most adenocarcinomas originating from bile duct cells, biliary duct cancer refers to bile duct adenocarcinoma. In addition, it is reported that biliary tract cancer occurs more in the age group in the 50s and 70s, and the incidence rate is higher in men than in women. Although the main cause of bile duct cancer is not clearly known, it is known that environmental and genetic factors work together to influence the occurrence. It has been known as a representative risk factor that causes chronic inflammation of the bile duct cells that make up the inside of the bile duct, biliary duct stones, sclerosing cholangitis, hepatoma, inflammatory bowel disease, and bile duct cysts. In addition, it is reported that the risk of developing biliary tract cancer is high in occupational groups that deal with chemicals and drugs that may be exposed to biliary carcinogens. Now, let’s take a look at the main symptoms that appear when biliary tract cancer occurs, as well as various information related to treatment and prevention.
The main symptoms of biliary tract cancer
The most common symptom of biliary tract cancer is jaundice, in which the skin and whites of the eyes turn yellow. Jaundice is a condition in which the skin turns yellow due to an abnormal increase in bilirubin in the blood. In addition, due to the occurrence of jaundice, bile cannot flow into the intestine and grayish-white stools may be discharged. In addition, a substance called bile acid in the bile goes back into the blood vessels together with bilirubin, causing itching of the skin. In addition, weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite, vomiting, nausea, and pain in the cerebellum region are also symptoms that can occur as the biliary tract cancer progresses. Biliary tract cancer is known to be very difficult to detect in its early stages because there are no symptoms in its early stages. By the time symptoms appear and biliary tract cancer is discovered, it is said that in many cases it is already quite advanced. In addition, even after diagnosis and treatment, biliary tract cancer is known to have a poor prognosis because the location of the cancer itself is easy to metastasize to major areas such as the pancreas. In fact, the 5-year relative survival rate of biliary tract cancer is only about 29.1%, and it is reported that the survival rate will be lower if surgical resection is not possible. Therefore, it is important to detect it as soon as possible and receive an accurate diagnosis and treatment. Since it is known that there is no special early screening method for biliary tract cancer, it is important to continuously check the condition of the biliary tract through regular checkups. In particular, it can be said that continuous check-ups are very important in the case of an age that is a high-risk group.
Treatment and prevention of biliary tract cancer
1. Diagnosis through multiple tests
To diagnose biliary tract cancer, blood tests, abdominal ultrasound to check bile duct dilatation and liver metastasis, etc. are performed, and various examination methods such as abdominal CT and abdominal MRI are performed to determine the degree of tumor invasion. In addition, several additional examination methods, such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), and positron emission tomography (PET-CT), were additionally implemented to more closely check the obstruction and stenosis of the biliary tract. You can.
2. Treatment according to the diagnosis result
Through various tests, the treatment method is selected in consideration of the location, size, stage, and patient’s health and age. Surgical resection is the only treatment for the cure of biliary tract cancer, but it is known that only 40% to 50% of all patients can be radically resected because it is difficult to accurately determine the extent of tumor invasion. If the cancer has metastasized or infiltrated around the bile ducts, and radical resection is difficult, treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy are performed to relieve jaundice. In addition, as it is known that the more advanced the cancer is at the time of surgery, the higher the risk of recurrence, so regular follow-up examinations are recommended.
3. Treatment of diseases affecting development
Diseases such as polyps in charge, ulcerative colitis, congenital liver fibrosis, and sclerosing cholangitis are known to affect the development of biliary tract cancer. Therefore, it is important to receive regular check-ups and appropriate treatment for the occurrence and symptom relief of the disease. In addition, it is important to perform appropriate excision surgery at an early stage for intrahepatic cholelithiasis, calcified gallbladder, and bile duct cyst caused by congenital expansion of bile ducts. And in order to prevent liver fluke, also called gandystoma, you should avoid eating raw freshwater fish and eat it thoroughly cooked. In addition, it can be said that it is important to take the treatment immediately if you are infected by Gandhistoma.