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Premenstrual syndrome symptoms, treatment and prevention

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Menstruation refers to a phenomenon in which the endometrium of a woman of childbearing age who has not become pregnant is spontaneously removed and discharged in response to the cycle of hormone secretion. It occurs in normal females of maturity and lasts for 3 to 5 days with a cycle of 26 to 36 days. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a series of symptoms that occur repeatedly before menstruation and are accompanied by emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms. It is a syndrome that usually begins 2 to 10 days before the onset of menstruation and disappears immediately before or immediately after the onset of menstruation.

The exact pathogenesis of the main cause of premenstrual syndrome has not been clearly elucidated. Changes in hormones such as estrogen and progesterone due to the menstrual cycle are estimated to be the biggest factor influencing the occurrence. Also, it is one of the neurotransmitters, and it is known that changes in the secretion of serotonin, which are related to emotions such as euphoria, and deficiency of nutrients such as magnesium, manganese, and vitamin E are also related to the occurrence. In particular, excessive consumption of caffeine and sugar has been known to be the main trigger for exacerbating these symptoms of PMS. Then, let’s take a closer look at the main symptoms, treatment, and prevention of premenstrual syndrome in more detail.

Main symptoms of premenstrual syndrome

The main symptoms of premenstrual syndrome can be divided into physical symptoms and emotional symptoms. Physical symptoms include pelvic pain, breast pain, back pain, headache, abdominal distension, swelling of hands and feet, weight gain, and bowel problems. Emotional symptoms include disturbances in concentration and memory, frequent emotional changes, and decreased appetite and libido. This series of symptoms gradually worsens after ovulation, becomes most severe one week before menstruation, and disappears within a few days after menstruation begins. And from the period of menstruation to the next ovulation, there are no symptoms at all.

When symptoms of premenstrual syndrome appear, they think that it is a natural symptom during menstruation, so active management and treatment are often not taken. If treatment is delayed in this way, various physical and emotional symptoms will cause great discomfort and difficulties in daily life. In addition, when symptoms worsen, work and learning abilities deteriorate, and at the same time, anxiety, depression, and mental instability cause great problems in normal interpersonal and social life, and can lead to mental disorders such as depression. there will be Therefore, if various symptoms corresponding to premenstrual syndrome appear, it can be said that it is necessary to make efforts to overcome it with more active treatment and management, rather than neglecting treatment.

Premenstrual syndrome treatment and prevention

1. Implementation of appropriate diagnosis and treatment

The diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome is based on the symptoms present, taking a medical history, examining the pelvis, and physical examination. After that, depending on the diagnosis result, along with the correction of lifestyle habits such as eating habits and exercise habits, various methods such as vitamin supplements, calcium and magnesium supplements, progesterone replacement therapy, and oral contraceptives for natural hormone suppression are implemented. Several medications may also be given to relieve psychological symptoms, such as antidepressants and tranquilizers and serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

2. Control caffeine and sugar intake

Excessive intake of caffeine and sugary foods is known to exacerbate PMS symptoms by increasing anxiety and sensitivity, so it is important to reduce caffeine intake and eat less sugary foods. In addition, it is important to reduce excessive consumption of salty foods, as controlling salt intake can help reduce swelling of the limbs, one of the main symptoms of PMS. In addition, refined carbohydrates, alcohol, and smoking are also major factors that aggravate symptoms, so it is necessary to make an effort to limit intake.

3. Healthy Eating

In order to improve the symptoms of PMS, it is important to consume vegetables, fruits, and blue-green fish on a regular basis. Premenstrual syndrome is also known to be highly related to deficiencies in several nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, vitamin B6, vitamin B3, vitamin E, and omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, it is important to eat a variety of foods that are rich in these nutrients.

In addition, supply of sufficient water also prevents the symptoms of lack of water due to hormonal changes, so it is important to constantly drink about 7 glasses of water a day.

4. Stress Control

Excessive stress, which is called the root of all ailments, also affects the normal menstrual cycle, acting as a major factor in exacerbating the symptoms of PMS. It is said that it is important to reduce stress in daily life through various methods such as sufficient rest and sleep, aromatherapy, meditation, and hobbies. In addition, regular exercise habits such as walking, biking, and jogging help relieve and control stress, and are known to help alleviate major physical and mental abnormalities of PMS.

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