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Migraine Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment


Headache, which refers to pain that occurs in several areas such as the occipital region and temple, including the forehead, is classified into primary and secondary. Migraine is one of the symptoms belonging to these primary headaches, and refers to a symptom in which pulsating, unilateral pain on one side of the head lasts for a certain period of time, and at the same time, nausea, vomiting, and a phobia of sound and light occur. It is one of the most common headaches with symptoms occurring at a rate of about 10% of the general population, and is characterized mainly by young women.

Although the cause of migraine headaches is not yet known, it is presumed that sudden changes in the external environment and physical changes cause excessive contraction and relaxation of the vascular system and cranial nerves to cause pain. In addition, it is known that genetic factors such as family history and changes in female hormone levels are also strongly related to the occurrence, and various lifestyle habits such as excessive consumption of alcohol, chocolate, cheese, and processed meat, lack of sleep, and excessive exercise can also cause migraine headaches. has been known to be a major trigger for Now, let’s take a closer look at the main symptoms of migraine and various information related to treatment and prevention.

Migraine main symptoms

The progression of migraine headaches can be divided into four stages. It is divided into stages including the prodromal phase, the aura phase, the headache phase, and the recovery phase, and it is known that the symptoms vary slightly depending on individual differences. In the progenitor phase, you experience the prodromal symptoms, in which you experience changes in energy and mood about 24 hours before the headache definitely occurs. At the same time as nerves become sensitive, the neck becomes stiff, and various symptoms such as severe fatigue and loss of appetite are accompanied. In addition, the increased frequency of chills and urination, and various symptoms such as constipation and diarrhea are also major symptoms that occur during the progenitor stage.

It is known that only about 20% of patients with migraine suffer from aura, a neurological symptom in which one or more symptoms are combined. These are mostly visual signs such as darkened vision, twinkling lights, or a haze, and the symptoms are known to last for about an hour.

Headache, which corresponds to stage 3 of the migraine stages, can be painful at any time of the day, progresses gradually, and then gradually subsides after entering a stable period. It is characterized by symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, including severe eye pain, and at the same time avoiding noise and bright light. Although these headaches usually occur unilaterally, they can also occur bilaterally rather than unilaterally.

In the recovery phase corresponding to stage 4, the headache is resolved, but it is accompanied by various symptoms such as muscle weakness, physical fatigue, decreased mood, instability, and lethargy for several hours. has Although it is known that migraine is not a life-threatening or disabling symptom by itself, if the symptoms continue, various symptoms can cause great disruption and discomfort in daily life, and worsening of symptoms may occur. Prolonged use may increase the risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases such as cerebral infarction. Therefore, it can be said that it is important to prevent the worsening of symptoms by receiving appropriate early treatment when symptoms appear, along with preventive therapy that eliminates and reduces various factors that cause migraines.

Migraine Treatment and Prevention

1. Diagnosis, examination and treatment

Migraine headaches are basically diagnosed through physical examination and clinical questionnaires, and depending on the diagnosis results, treatment is carried out along with medication and preventive measures to reduce the duration and frequency of headaches. Medication is used to relieve the headache and accompanying symptoms as soon as possible when migraine occurs. In particular, when a migraine attack starts, acute phase drugs are administered immediately, and it is known that these administrations become more effective the sooner they are administered. In addition, it is important to receive appropriate treatment under an accurate diagnosis and prescription from a specialist, as these medications can cause problems such as side effects and misuse if they are taken arbitrarily through the self-diagnosis process without accurate diagnosis and prescription.

2. Relieve stress through adequate rest and exercise

Excessive stress is known to be the main trigger for migraine, so it is important to make efforts to reduce the specific situations and factors that cause such stress as much as possible, and it is recommended to engage in leisure activities to find psychological stability. In addition to these stresses, several factors such as lack of sleep and chronic fatigue also greatly affect the occurrence of migraines, so it is important to get enough rest and sleep. In addition, regular exercise also relieves nerves and helps relieve symptoms of migraines, so it is recommended to continue various aerobic exercise such as walking, cycling, and swimming. However, sudden and excessive exercise can actually worsen migraine symptoms, so it is very important to exercise at an intensity suitable for you.

3. Control and limit food intake that worsens symptoms

As it is known that the occurrence of migraines is closely related to the food consumed in daily life, it is also very important to try to control and limit the intake of foods that aggravate the symptoms. Caffeine-containing coffee and energy drinks, chocolate, cheese, and processed meats such as sausages and hams are among the food groups that exacerbate these symptoms. And alcohol is a major factor that causes and worsens migraine symptoms, and among them, red wine is known to be a major trigger for worsening migraine symptoms, so it is recommended to limit it.

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