If you look at the scientists who have made a name for themselves in human history, there are not many who were highly regarded while alive. Of course, it is the same in other fields, but due to the nature of silent research, most people do not know about it.
Accordingly, recently, American online media ‘Big Sync’ selected and introduced 10 great scientists in existence so that you can check out the great achievements of scientists during their lifetime.
The following are listed in order of introduction regardless of ranking.
1. Tim Berners-Lee (born 1955)
British-born computer scientist. He devised and developed the hypertext system of the World Wide Web (WWW · World Wide Web), which is the basis of today’s network society. He also designed URL, HTTP, and HTM, and in 1991 released the world’s first website. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of England in 2004 and most recently the Turing Prize, the Nobel Prize in IT.
2. Stephen Hawking (born 1942)
He is currently the most influential scientist in space physics. His book A History of Time, published in 1988, became a global bestseller, selling over 10 million copies in 20 years. Especially in the study of black holes, he made a very sharp consideration, and the thermal radiation emitted by black holes due to quantum mechanical effects was called ‘Hawking radiation’ after him. Although he is in a wheelchair with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), he is respected as a prestigious physicist and has given courage to many around the world.
3. Jane Goodall (born 1934)
British primatologist and the world’s most famous chimpanzee expert. For over 55 years, he has been studying social and familial forms of interaction in wild chimpanzees. She said her innovative research showed that not only humans but also chimpanzees could create and use tools. She also conducted her pioneering observational studies of the violent nature of chimpanzees, where she also uncovered the realities of preying on and hunting juvenile monkeys. Since 1977, she founded the Jane Goodall Institute, where she is boldly committed to environmental protection and biodiversity issues.
4. Alan Goose (born 1947)
An American theoretical physicist and cosmologist, he was the first to propose the theory of rapid expansion (inflation) of the universe. This is the theory that the universe grew slowly at first, then suddenly expanded faster than light, and then expanded slowly again. Through this, he received the Basic Physics Award and the Cabbly Award for solving most of the problems that the Big Bang theory, the standard model for explaining the birth of the universe, could not explain.
5. Ashoke Sen (born 1956)
As an Indian theoretical physicist, he is acclaimed for developing string theory in various fields. He received the ICTP Prize in 1989, the Shantis Swarub Batnaga Prize for Science and Technology in 1994, the Padma Shri Prize in 2001 and the Basic Physics Prize in 2012.
6. James Watson (born 1928)
American molecular biologist and geneticist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962 for co-discoverer of the ‘double helix’ structure of DNA, published in 1953. The discovery of the double helix structure later led to a breakthrough in molecular biology, and his achievements were re-evaluated, and in 2002 he was awarded the Geardner Foundation’s most prestigious international award in medicine.
7. Tu Youyou (Born in 1930)
She became the first Chinese woman to receive the 2015 Nobel Prize for her work in developing an antimalarial drug that has saved countless lives in Asia and Africa. Based on traditional Chinese medicine, she discovered artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin in wormwood. With the treatment she used it, she significantly improved the health of people living in tropical areas.
8. Noam Chomsky (born 1928)
An American linguist and political activist, he made a global impact in many fields. He is called the ‘father of modern linguistics’ and is also one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. Having written more than 100 books, leading various fields, and combining contemporary criticism, he is an open critic of US foreign policy today.
9. Shinya Yamanaka (born 1962)
He is a stem cell researcher who was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for co-discovering the technology to generate various stem cells (iPS cells) from existing cells in the body. In 2013, he won the Life Sciences Innovation Award, which was created by Silicon Valley bullies such as Mark Zuckerberg, and won a prize of $3 million.
10. Elizabeth Blackburn (born 1948)
A molecular biologist with dual nationality from Australia and the United States, she was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her field of anti-aging, particularly for elucidating the principle that telomeres, the ends of chromosomes, protect chromosomes, and for discovering the enzyme telomerase that protects telomeres. received.